Mujeres abusadas que matan

Una mirada de género a la legítima defensa y al "síndrome de la mujer golpeada" en el derecho canadiense desde el caso "R v. Lavallee"

  • Melisa N. Handl Universidad de Ottawa
Palabras clave: violencia de género, violencia contra las mujeres, legítima defensa, síndrome de la mujer golpeada, control coercitivo, mirada de género, derechos de las mujeres, derecho penal, derecho canadiense, Rust v. Lavallee (1990), abordajes socio-legales

Resumen

El propósito del presente artículo es analizar la aplicación de la excluyente de responsabilidad de la legítima defensa en los casos de mujeres abusadas que matan a sus abusadores, con énfasis en las dificultades teóricas y prácticas que presenta tal figura desde una perspectiva de género. Se aborda la institución de la legítima defensa simultáneamente desde una doble mirada: la perspectiva de la violencia de pareja y la perspectiva del derecho canadiense. Se reflexiona sobre soluciones alternativas en los casos en los que se produjo una defensa diferida, inquiriendo sobre la posibilidad de una respuesta más equitativa por parte de las instituciones. La legítima defensa resguarda a quien mata a otro para defenderse a sí mismo o a un tercero. Aunque esta aseveración parezca incuestionable, es en realidad una zona de grises en el derecho penal. Las mujeres violentadas durante largos periodos de tiempo, que un día matan a sus maltratadores, generalmente no lo hacen durante una confrontación física. En este artículo, en lugar de restringir el análisis meramente a los hechos ocurridos el día de la muerte del maltratador, se dará marcha atrás en el tiempo para desmenuzar con detenimiento el ciclo de violencias recurrentes y el “síndrome de la mujer golpeada”, así como también la teoría del “control coercitivo” en el contexto canadiense. Se parte del famoso caso canadiense Rust v. Lavallee (1990). Se señalarán las dificultades en el alcance de algunos de los requisitos de las causales de legítima defensa y su insuficiencia para responder a las realidades de las mujeres violentadas. Esta investigación, realizada a través de un análisis de la eximente de responsabilidad penal y de sus requisitos, evidencia una preocupante desconexión entre el derecho actual y la realidad de la violencia contra las mujeres.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Melisa N. Handl, Universidad de Ottawa

Abogada, investigadora y candidata doctoral (Universidad de Ottawa, Canadá). Estudió Derecho en la Universidad Católica de Salta (Argentina). Realizó una Maestría en Relaciones Internacionales (Escuela de Asuntos Exteriores Norman Paterson de la Universidad de Carleton, Canadá) y una Maestría en Derecho (Universidad de Ottawa), especializándose en Justicia Social y Derechos Humanos. Actualmente está terminando su doctorado en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Ottawa, donde investiga los impactos de los programas de transferencias condicionadas de dinero en la vida de las mujeres beneficiarias a través de la etnografía institucional. Sus áreas de interés son el género, derechos humanos, política social, metodología, abordajes socio-legales, empresas y derechos humanos y desarrollo internacional. Asimismo, está incursionando en el área de las industrias extractivas e investigando el impacto que tienen las actividades de estas en la vida de las mujeres y con respecto a la violencia de género.  Ha sido reconocida por su investigación feminista y recientemente fue galardonada, junto con la Dra. Penelope Simons, con el premio Shirley Greenberg, otorgado al mejor articulo académico feminista de 2019.

Citas

Acosta López, J. I. (2012). The Cotton Field Case: Gender Perspective and Feminist Theories in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights Jurisprudence. International Law: Revista Colombiana de Derecho Internacional, (21), 17-54.

Allard, S. A. (1991). Rethinking battered women’s syndrome: A Black feminist perspective. UCLA Women’s Law Journal, (1), 191-207.

Anderson, K. (2009). Gendering Coercive Control. Violence Against Women, 15(21), 1441-1457.

Arnold, G. (2009). A Battered Women’s Movement Perspective of Coercive Control. Violence against Women, 15(21), 1432-1443.

Aristóteles. (2001). Ética a Nicómaco (Introducción, Traducción y Notas de José Luis Calvo Martínez). Madrid: Alianza Editorial.

Australian Domestic & Family Violence Clearinghouse. (2011). Fast Facts the Financial Cost of Domestic and Family Violence. Newsletter 45.

Bacigalupo, E. (1996). Manual de Derecho Penal (3a reimp.). Santa Fe de Bogotá: Temis.

Backhouse, C. B. (1988). Married Women’s Property Law in Nineteenth-Century Canada. Law and History Review, 6(2), 211-257.

Baker, C., Billhardt, K., Warren, J., Rollins, C. y Glass, E. (2010). Domestic Violence, Housing Instability, and Homelessness: A Review of Housing Policies and Program Practices for Meeting the Needs of Survivors. Aggression and Violent Behavior, (15), 430-439.

Baly, A. (2010). Leaving Abusive Relationships: Constructions of Self and Situation by Abused Women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(12), 2297-2315.

Bancroft, L. (2002). Why Does He Do That? Inside The Mind of Angry and Controlling Men. Nueva York: Berkley Books.

Barnett, H. (1998). Introduction to Feminist Jurisprudence. Londres: Cavendish Publishing.

Barnett, O. W. (2000). Why Battered Women Do Not Leave: Part 1. External Inhibiting Factors Within Society. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1(4), 343-372.

Barnett, O. W. y LaViolette, A. D. (1993). It Could Happen To Anyone: Why Battered Women Stay. Newbury Park, California: SAGE Publications.

Barrancos, D. (2000). Inferioridad Jurídica y Encierro Doméstico. En Gil Lozano, F., Pita, V. S. e Ini, M. G. (Dirs.), Historia de las Mujeres en la Argentina. Colonia y siglo XIX, Buenos Aires: Taurus.

Bartlett, K. (1990). Feminist Legal Methods. Harvard Law Review, (103), 829-888.

Bartlett, K. (1994). Gender Law. Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy, 1(1), 1-18.

Bartlett, K. y Kennedy, R. (1991). Introduction. En Bartlett, K. y Kennedy, R. (Eds.), Feminist Legal Theory: Readings in Law and Gender. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Barry, K. (1988). Susan B. Anthonv: A Biography of a Singular Feminist. Nueva York: Ballantine Books.

Bates, J. M. (1991). Expert Testimony on the Battered Woman Syndrome in Maryland. Marvland Law Review, (50), 920-944.

Beck, C., Walsh, M. E., Mechanic, M. B., Figueredo, A. J., Chen, M-K. (2011). Intimate Partner Abuse in Divorce Mediation: Outcomes from a Long-Term Multi-cultural Study. U.S Department of Justice, Document number 236868.

Bélanger, P. G. (s.f.). Implementación de las obligaciones establecidas en el Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional: la experiencia canadiense. https://web.oas.org/mla/en/G_Countries_MLA/can_mla_doc3_es.pdf.

Bellrichard, C. (27 de abril de 2018). ‘Urgent actions’ needed to address violence against Indigenous women and girls — UN report. CBC Canada. https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/un-special-rapporteur-violence-against-women-1.4637613.

Bennett, S. M. (1989). Ending the Continuous Reign of Terror: Sleeping Husbands, Battered Wives, And the Right of Self-Defense. Wake Forest Law Review, (24), 959-993.

Bettinger-López, C. (2008a). Human Rights at Home: Domestic Violence as a Human Rights Violation. HRLR, 40, 1, 19.

Bettinger-Lopez, C. (2008b). Jessica Gonzales v. United States: An Emerging Model for Domestic Violence & Human Rights Advocacy in the United States. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 21(2), 183-195.

Bhuyan, R., Osborne, B., Zahraei, S. y Tarshis, S. (2014). Unprotected, Unrecognized: Canadian Immigration Policy and Violence Against Women, 2008-2013. Toronto: Migrant Mothers Project, University of Toronto.

Birnbaum, R. Saini, M. y Bala, N. (2017). Canada’s First Integrated Domestic Violence Court: Examining Family and Criminal Court Outcomes at the Toronto IDVC. Journal of Family Violence, 32(6), 621-631.

Blackstone W. (2016 [1867]) Commentaries on the law of England (Oxford ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Block C. y W. DeKeseredy (2007). Forced Sex and Leaving Intimate Relationships Results of the Chicago Women’s Health Risk Study (University of Toronto). https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/9750/1/Block_Dekeseredy.pdf.

Bourassa, C., Lavergne, C., Damant, D., Lessard, G. y Turcotte, P. (2008). Práctica de los Trabajadores de Bienestar Infantil en Casos que Involucran Violencia Doméstica. Child Abuse Review, 17(3), 174 -190.

Browne, A. (1987). When Battered Women Kill. Nueva York: The Free Press.

Burczycka, M. (2016). Trends in Self-Reported Spousal Violence in Canada, 2014. En Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile, 2014. Juristat. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-X.

Burczycka, M. (2017). Police-Reported Intimate Partner Violence. En Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile, 2015. Juristat. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-X.

Burns, S. (2010). Single Mothers Without Legal Status in Canada: Caught in the Intersection Between Immigration Law and Family Law. Vancouver: YWCA.

Bustos Ramírez, J. J. y Hormazábal Malaree, H. (1999). Lecciones de Derecho Penal (Vol. II). Madrid: Trotta.

Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Nueva York: Routledge.

Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’. Nueva York: Routledge.

Cahn, N. (1992). The Looseness of Legal Language: The Reasonable Woman Standard in Theory and in Practice. Cornell Law Review, 77(6), 1398-1446.

Campbell, B. (1996). The validity and use of evidence concerning battering and its effects in criminal trials. National Institute of Justice Research Report.

Campbell, J. (2002). Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence. Lancet, (359), 1331- 1336.

Campbell, J., Glass, N., Sharps, P. W., Laughon, K. y Bloom, T. (2007). Intimate Partner Homicide: Review and Implications of Research and Policy. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 8, 3, 246-269.

Campbell, J., Sharps, P. y Glass, N. (2001). Risk Assessment for Intimate Partner Homicide. En Pinard, G. F y Pagani, L. (Eds.), Clinical assessment of dangerousness: Empirical contributions. Nueva York: Plenum.

Campbell, J., Webster, D. y Glass, N. (2009). Validación de la Evaluación del Peligro de un Instrumento de Evaluación del Riesgo de Letalidad para el Femicidio de Pareja Íntima. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(4), 653-674.

Campbell, J., Webster, D., Koziol-McLain, J., Block, C., Campbell, D., Curry, M. A. y Laughon, K. (2003). Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results from a Multisite Case Control Study. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1089-1097.

Campbell, R. (2011). Fast Facts: The Financial Cost of Domestic and Family Violence (Newsletter 45). Australian Domestic & Family Violence Clearinghouse.

Canadian Bar Association. (2013). Reaching Equal Justice: An Invitation to Envision and Act. Ottawa: CBA.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. (2016). Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile, 2014. Ottawa: Minister of Industry. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14303-eng.htm.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. (2019). Family Violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2018. Ottawa: Minister of Industry.

Canadian Forum on Civil Justice. (2012). The Cost of Justice: Weighing the Costs of Fair and Effective Resolution to Legal Problems. CFCJ.

Cazenave, N., y Straus, M. (1990). Race, Class Network Embeddedness, and Family Violence: A Search for Potent Support Systems. En Straus, M. y Gelles, R. (Eds.), Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families (pp. 321-340). New Brunswick: Transaction Books.

Celorio, R. M. (2011). The Rights of Women in the Inter-American System of Human Rights: Current Opportunities and Challenges in Standard-Setting. University of Miami Law Review, 65(3), 819-866.

Chan, W. (1994). A Feminist Critique of Self-Defense and Provocation in Battered Women’s Cases in England and Wales. Women & Criminal Justice, (6), 39-65.

Charlesworth H., Chinkin, C. y Wright, S. (1991). Feminist Approaches to International Law. The American Journal of International Law, 85(4), 613-645.

Clark Lorenne, M. G. (1992). Women and the State: Critical Theory Oasis or Desert Island? Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, (166), 167- 168.

Colleen V., Hankivsky, O., Ford-Gilboe, M., Wuest, J., Wilk, P., Hammerton, J. y Campbell, J. (2011). Attributing Selected Costs to Intimate Partner Violence in a Sample of Women Who Have Left Abusive Partners: A Social Determinants of Health Approach. Canadian Public Policy, 37(3), 359-380.

Collins, P. H. (2000). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (2a ed.). Nueva York: Routledge.

Collins, R. E. (2014). Beauty and Bullets: A Content Analysis of Female Offenders and Victims in Four Canadian Newspapers. Journal of Sociology, 52(2), 296-310.

Collins, R. K. (1977). Language, History and the Legal Process: A profile of the ‘Reasonable Man’. Rutgers-Camden Law Journal, 8(2), 311-323.

Comack, E. (2002). Do We Need to Syndromize Women’s Experiences? The Limitations of the ‘Battered Woman Syndrome’. En McKenna, K. M. J. y Larkin, J. (Eds.), Violence against Women: New Canadian Perspectives. Toronto: Inanna Publications and Education Inc.

Comack, E. y Brickley, S. (2007). Constituting the Violence of Criminalized Women. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, (49), 1-36.

Conradi L. y Geffner, R. (2009). Introducción a la Parte 1 del número especial sobre mujeres delincuentes de violencia de pareja íntima. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 18(6), 547-551.

Copelon, R. (1997). Terror íntimo: la violencia doméstica entendida como tortura. En Cook, R. (Ed.), Derechos humanos de la mujer, perspectivas nacionales e internacionales. Bogotá: Profamilia.

Craig, E. (2018). Putting Trials on Trial: Sexual Assault and the Failure of the Legal Profession. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241-1299.

Crocker, P. L. (1985). The Meaning of Equality for Battered Women Who Kill In Self-Defense. Harvard Women’s Law Journal, (8), 121-153.

Currie, A. (2009). The Legal Problems of Everyday Life: The Nature, Extent and Consequences of Justiciable Problems Experienced by Canadians. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.

Daly, K. y Chesney-Lind, M. (1988). Feminism and Criminology. Justice Quarterly, (5), 497-538.

DeKeseredy, W. y Dragiewicz, M. (2014). Women Abuse in Canada: Sociological Reflections on the Past, Suggestions for the Future. Violence against Women, 20(2), 228-244.

Department of Justice Canada. (2003). Spousal Abuse Policies and Legislation. Final Report of the Ad Hoc Federal-Provincial-Territorial Working Group Reviewing. Ottawa. https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/fv-vf/pol/spo_e-con_a.pdf.

Di Corleto, J. (2006). Mujeres que matan. Legítima defensa en el caso de las mujeres golpeadas. Revista de Derecho Penal y Procesal Penal Lexis Nexis, (5).

Dietz, M. G. (2003). Current Controversies in Feminist Theory. Annual Review of Political Science, 6, 399-431.

Dobash, R. E. y Dobash, R. P. (1979). Violence against Wives: a Case against the Patriarchy. Nueva York: Free Press.

Dobash, R. E. y Dobash, R. P. (1992). Women, Violence, and Social Change. Nueva York: Routledge.

Dobash, R. E. y Dobash, R. P. (1998). Violent Men and Violent Contexts. En Dobash, R. E. y Dobash, R. P. (Eds.), Rethinking Violence against Women (pp. 141-168). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Douglas, H. (2005). Do We Need a Specific Domestic Violence Offence? Melbourne University Law Review, 39(2), 434-471.

Dowd, M. (1992). Michael Dispelling the Myths About the “Battered Woman’s Defense”: Towards a New Understanding. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 19(3), 567-583.

Downs, D. A. (1996). More than Victims: Battered Women, the Syndrome Society, and the Law. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Dubinsky, K. (1992). Maidenly Girls or Designing Women: The Crime of Seduction in Turn-Of-The-Century Ontario. En Iacovetta, F. y Valverde, M. (Eds.), Gender Conflict: New Essays in Women’s History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Duhaime, B. (2017). Women’s Rights in Recent Inter-American Human Rights Jurisprudence. Processings of the ASIL Annual Meeting. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/amp.2017.38.

Duhaime, B. (2019). Ten Reasons Why Canada Should Join the American Convention on Human Rights. Revue Générale de Droit, (49), 187-205.

Duncan, J. y D. Western. (2011). Addressing ‘The Ultimate Insult’: Responding to Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Sexual Violence. Australian Domestic & Family Violence Clearinghouse.

Dutton, D. G. y Painter, S. L. (1981). Traumatic Bonding: The Development of Emotional Attachments in Battered Women and Other Relationships of Intermittent Abuse. Victimology: An International Journal, (6), 139-155.

Dutton, D. G. y Painter, S. L. (1993). Emotional Attachments in Abusive Relationships: A Test of Traumatic Bonding Theory. Violence and Victims, (8), 105-120.

Dutton, M. A. (1993). Understanding Women’s Response to Domestic Violence: a Redefinition of Battered Woman Syndrome. Hofstra Law Review, (21), 1191-1242.

Dutton, M. A. y Goodman, L. A. (1994). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Battered Women: Analysis of Legal Implications. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, (12), 215-234.

Dutton, M. A. y Goodman, L. A. (2005). Coercion in Intimate Partner Violence: Toward a New Conceptualization. Sex Roles, (52), 743-756.

Edwards, S. M. (1985). Women on Trial: A Study of the Female Suspect, Defendant, and Offender in the Criminal Law and Criminal Justice System. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Ewing, C. P. (1987). Battered Women Who Kill: Psychological Self-Defense as Legal Justification. Lexington: Lexington Books.

Ewing, C. P. y Aubrey, M. (1987). Battered Woman and Public Opinion: Some Realities about the Myths. Journal of Family Violence, (2), 257-264.

Facio, A. y Fries, L. (1999). Hacia otra teoría crítica del derecho. En Facio, A. y Fries, L. (Comps.), Género y Derecho. Santiago: LOM Ediciones, La Morada.

Faigman, D. L. (1986). The Battered Woman Syndrome and Self-Defense: A Legal and Empirical Dissent. Virginia Law Review, (72), 619-647.

Faigman, D. L. y Wright, A. J. (1997). The Battered Woman Syndrome in the Age of Science. Arizona Law Review, (39), 67-115.

Farrow, T., Currie, A., Aylwin, N., Jacobs, L., Northrup, D. y Moore, L. (2016). Everyday Legal Problems and the Costs of Justice in Canada: An Overview Informe. Toronto: Foro Canadiense de Justicia Civil. http://www.cfcj-fcjc.org/sites/default/files/Everyday%20Legal%20Problems%20and%20the%20Cost%20of%20Justice%20in%20Canada%20-%20Overview%20Report.pdf.

Ferraro, K. J. (1998). Battered Women: Strategies for Survival. En Cherlin, A, (Ed.), Public and Private Families: A Reader. Nueva York: McGraw-Hill.

Ferraro, K. J. (2003). The Words Change, but the Melody Lingers: The Persistence of the Battered Woman Syndrome in Criminal Cases Involving Battered Women. Violence against Women, 9(1), 110-129

Finley Mangum, P. (1999). Reconceptualizing Battered Woman Syndrome Evidence: Prosecution Use of Expert Testimony on Battering. Boston College Third World Law Journal, 19(2), 593-620.

Fisher, B. S., Zink, T. M., Rinto, B. A., Regan, S. L., Pabst, S. R. y Gothelf, E. J. (2003). Guest Editors’ Introduction: Overlooked Issues During the Golden Years: Domestic Violence and Intimate Partner Violence against Older Women. Violence Against Women, 9(12), 1409-1416.

Flavin, J. (2001). Feminism for the Mainstream Criminologist: An Invitation. Journal of Criminal Justice, 29(4), 271-285.

Fuselier, G. D. (1999). Placing the Stockholm Syndrome in Perspective. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 68(7), 22-25.

Frye, V., Manganello, J., Campbell, J. C., Walton-Moss, B. y Wilt, S. (2006). The Distribution of and Factors Associated With Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence Among a Population-Based Sample of Urban Women in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(10), 1286-1313.

Gagne, P. (1998). Battered Women’s Justice: The Movement For Clemency and the Politics of Self-Defense. Nueva York: Twayne Publishers.

George, J. y Stith, S. (2014). An Updated Feminist View of Intimate Partner Violence. Family Process, 53(2), 179-193.

Gilbert, R. (2009). Una tipología de violencia doméstica. Terrorismo íntimo, resistencia violenta y violencia de pareja situacional. University Press of New England.

Gillespie, C. (1989). Justifiable Homicide. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Glancy, G., Heintzman, M. y Wheeler, A. (2019). Battered Woman Syndrome: Updating the Expert Checklist. International Journal of Risk and Recovery, 2(2), 4-17. https://doi.org/10.15173/ijrr.v2i2.3820.

Glass, N., Manganello, J. y Campbell, J. C. (2004). Risk for Intimate Partner Femicide in Violent Relationships. Domestic Violence Report, 9(2), 1-33.

Glueck, S. y Glueck, E. (1934). Five Hundred Delinquent Women. Nueva York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Gondolf, E. W. y Fisher, E. R. (1988). Battered Women as Survivors: An Alternative to Treating Learned Helplessness. Toronto: D. C. Health.

Gondolf, E. W., Fisher, E. y McFerron, J. R. (1988). Racial Differences among Shelter Residents: A Comparison Of Anglo, Black, and Hispanic Battered. Journal of Family Violence, 3(1), 39-51.

Goodman L. y M. A. Dutton. (2007). Víctimas de violencia de pareja íntima: precisión en la evaluación de su riesgo de re-abuso. Journal of Family Violence, (22), 420- 440.

Goodmark, L. (2004). Law Is the Answer? Do We Know That For Sure?: Questioning the Efficacy of Legal Interventions for Battered Women. St. Louis University Public Law Review, 23(7), 7-48.

Goodmark, L. (2008). When Is a Battered Woman Not a Battered Woman? When She Fights Back. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, (20), 75-129.

Goodmark, L. (2009). Autonomy Feminism: An Anti-Essentialist Critique of Mandatory Interventions in Domestic Violence Cases. Florida State University Law Review, 37(1), 1-48.

Gordon, A. (2005). Terrorism as an Academic Subject After 9/11: Searching the Internet Reveals a Stockholm Syndrome Trend. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, (28), 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100590524339.

Graham, D. L., Rawlings, E. I. y Rigsby, R. K. (1994). Loving to survive: Sexual terror, men’s violence, and women’s lives. Nueva York: New York University Press.

Graham, D. L., Rawlings, E. I. y Rimini, N. (1988). Survivors of Terror: Battered Women, Hostages, and the Stockholm syndrome. En Yllo, K. y Bograd, M. (Eds.), Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse (pp. 217-233). SAGE Publications.

Graham, D. L. R., Rawlings, E. I., Ihms, K., Latimer, D., Foliano, J., Thompson, A., Suttman, K., Farrington, M. y Hacker, R. (2001). A Scale for Identifying “Stockholm Syndrome” Reactions in Young Dating Women: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity. En O’Leary, K. D. y Maiuro, R. D. (Eds.). Psychological abuse in violent domestic relations. Nueva York: Springer Publishing Company.

Grant, I. (1991). The “Syndromization” of Women’s Experience. UBC Law Review, (25), 51-59.

Griffing, S., Ragin, D. F., Sage, R. E., Madry, L., Bingham, L. E. y Primm, B. J. (2002). Domestic Violence Survivors’ Self-Identified Reasons For Returning To Abusive Relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(3), 306-319.

Hacker, F. J. y Hacker, F. (1976). Crusaders, criminals, crazies: Terror and terrorism in our time. Nueva York: Norton.

Hampton, R., LaTaillade, J., Dacey, A. y Marghi, J. (2008). Evaluating Domestic Violence Interventions for Black Women. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 16(3), 330-353.

Hanna, C. (2009). The Paradox of Progress: Translating Evan Stark’s Coercive Control into Legal Doctrine for Abused Women. Violence Against Wives, 15(12), 1458-1476.

Hanna, M. (2006). All human life: Covering the Courts. En Keeble, R. (Ed.), The Newspaper Handbook (4a ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.

Harper, A. O. (2007). Is Canada Peaceful and Safe for Aboriginal Women? Resources for Feminist Research, 32(3-4), 211.

Hatcher, G. R. (2003). The Gendered Nature of the Battered Woman Syndrome: Why Gender Neutrality Does Not Mean Equality. New York University Annual Survey of American Law, (59), 21-50.

Heidensohn, F. (1968). The Deviance of Women: A Critique and an Enquiry. British Journal of Sociology, (19),160-175.

Heidensohn, F. (1985). Women and Crime. Londres: Macmillan.

Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and Recovery Glenview. IL: Basic Books/Harper Collins.

Herman, J. L. (1997 [1992]). A New Diagnosis. En Herman, J. (Ed.), Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence - From Domestic Abuse To Political Terror. Nueva York: Basic Books.

Hopp, C. M. (2012). Legítima defensa de las mujeres: de víctimas a victimarias. Jurisprudencia Penal de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación (Nº 13). Buenos Aires: Hammurabi.

Hotton, T. (2001). Spousal Violence after Marital Separation. Juristat, (21), 1-19.

Horton, A. L. y Johnson, B. L. (1993). Profile and Strategies of Women Who Have Ended Abuse. Families in Society, 74(8), 481-492.

Jacobs, G. (1999). Pre-formulating the News: An Analysis of the Metapragmatics of Press Releases. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Jacobs, M. (2017). The Violent State: Black Women’s Struggle against Police Violence. William and Mary Journal of Women and Law, 24(1), 39-100.

Jakobs, G. (1995). Derecho Penal Parte General. Fundamentos y Teoría de la Imputación. Madrid: Marcial Pons.

Janovicek, N. (2007). No Place to Go: Local Histories of the Battered Women’s Shelter Movement. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, V. (2018). Immigration Policies and Immigrant Women’s Vulnerability to Intimate Partner Violence in Canada. Journal of International Migrations and Integration, 19(2), 339-348.

Jescheck, H. H. (1993). Tratado de Derecho Penal. Parte General (4ª ed., Trad. de José Luis Manzanares Samaniego). Granada: Editorial Comares.

Johnson, A. (2008). ‘From where we’re sat . . .’ Negotiating Narrative Transformation through Interaction in Police Interviews with Suspects. Text & Talk, 28(3), 327-349.

Johnson, H., Eriksson, L., Mazerolle, P. y Wortley, R. (2017). Intimate Femicide: The Role of Coercive Control. Feminist Criminology, (35). https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085117701574.

Johnson, M. P. (1995). Patriarchal Terrorism and Common Couple Violence: Two Forms of Violence against Women in U.S. Families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, (57), 283- 294.

Johnson, M. P. (2008). A Typology of Domestic Violence: Intimate Terrorism, Violent Resistance, and Situational Couple Violence. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Kinports, K. (2004). So Much Activity, So Little Change: A Reply to the Critics of Battered Women’s Self-Defense. St. Louis University Public Law Review, 23(155), 173-177.

Klein, D. (1973). The Etiology of Female Crime: A Review of the Literature. Issues in Criminology, (8), 3-29.

Klein, D. (1981). Violence against Women: Some Considerations Regarding Its Causes and Its Elimination. Crime and Delinquency, (27), 64-80.

Koshan, J. (2012). State Responsibility for Protection Against Domestic Violence: The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Decisions in Lenahan (Gonzales) and Its Application in Canada. Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice, 30(1), 39-62.

Koshan, J., Mosher, J. y Wiegers, W. (2020). The Costs of Justice in Domestic Violence Cases: Mapping Canadian Law and Policy. En Farrow, T. y Jacobs, L. (Eds.), The Justice Crisis: The Cost and Value of Accessing Law. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Krieger, L. J. y Cooney, P. N. (1983). The Miller-Wohl Controversy: Equal Treatment, Positive Action and the Meaning of Women’s Equality. Golden Gate Unievrsity Law Review, (13), 513-572.

Laurrari, E. (1994). Violencia doméstica y legítima defensa: una aplicación masculina del derecho penal. Jueces Para La Democracia, (23), 22-23.

Lazar, M. M. (2005). Feminist CDA as Political Perspective and Praxis. En Lazar, M. M. (Ed.), Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis: Gender, Power and Ideology in Discourse (pp. 1-28). Londres: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lazar, M. M. (2007). Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis: Articulating a Feminist Discourse Praxis. Critical Discourse Studies, (4), 141-164.

Lazar, M. M. (2014). Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis. En Ehrlich, S., Meyerhoff, M. y Holmes, J. (Eds.), The Handbook of Language, Gender, and Sexuality (pp. 180-200). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Lazar, R. (2008). Reconceptualizing Victimization and Agency in the Discourse of Battered Women Who Kill. Studies in Law, Politics and Society, (45), 3-45.

Lemon, N. (2006). Access to Justice: Can Domestic Violence Courts Better Address the Need of Non-English Speaking Victims of Domestic Violence. Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice, 21(1), 38-58.

Littleton, C. A. (1989). Feminist Jurisprudence: The Difference Method Makes. Stanford Law Review, (41), 754-763.

Mackinnon, C. A. (1987). Feminism Unmodified: Discourses On Life And Law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Mackinnon, C. A. (1989). Toward a Femenist Theory of the State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Mackinnon, C. A. (1983). Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: Toward Feminist Jurisprudence. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 8(4), 635-658.

Mahoney, M. R. (1991). The Images of Battered Women: Redefining the Issue of Separation. Michigan Law Review, (90), 1-94.

Martin, D. (1981). Battered wives. California: Volcano Press.

McFarlane J. y Malecha, A. (2005). Sexual Assault Among Intimates: Frequency, Consequences, and Treatments, final report to the National Institute of Justice, (NCJ 211678).

McMahon, M. (1999). Battered Women and Bad Science: The Limited Validity and Utility of Battered Woman Syndrome. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 6(1), 23-49.

McNulty, F. (1980). The Burning Bed. Nueva Yok: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: New York.

Merritt-Gray, M. y Wuest, J. (1995). Counteracting Abuse and Breaking Free: The Process of Leaving Revealed through Women’s Voices. Health Care for Women International, (16), 399-412.

Merry, S. E. (1995). Wife Battering and The Ambiguities Of Rights. En Sarat, A. y Kearns, T. (Eds.), Identities, Politics, and Rights. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.

Merry, S. E. (2003). Rights Talk and The Experience of Law: Implementing Women’s Human Rights to Protection from Violence. Human Rights Quarterly, (25), 343-381.

Michigan Women’s Justice & Clemency Project (2018). http://umich.edu/~clemency/clemency_mnl/ch4.html.

Miladinovic, Z. y Mulligan, L. (2015). Homicide in Canada, 2014. Juristat. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-X.

Moe, A. M. (2007). Silenced Voices and Structured Survival: Battered Women’s Help Seeking. Violence against Women, 13(1), 676-699.

Moldon, J. (2002). Rewriting Stories: Women’s Responses to the Safe Journey Group. En Tutty, L. y Goard, C. (Eds.), Reclaiming Self Issues and Resources for Women Abused by Intimate Partners. Halifax: Fernwood.

Montesanti, S. y Thurston, W. (2015). Mapping the Role of Structural and Interpersonal Violence in the Lives of Women: Implications for Public Heath Interventions and Policy. BMC Women’s Health, (15), 1-13.

Moore L., Currie, A., Aylwin, N., Farrow, T. C. W. y Di Libero, P. (2017). The Cost of Experiencing Everyday Legal Problems Related to Physical And Mental Health. Toronto: Canadian Forum on Civil Justice. https://cfcj-fcjc.org/sites/default/files/docs/The%20Cost%20of%20Experiencing%20Everyday%20Legal%20Problems%20Related%20to%20Physical%20and%20Mental%20Health.pdf.

Mosher, J. (2015). Grounding Access to Justice Theory and Practice in the Experience of Women Abused by Their Intimate Partners. Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice, 32(2), 149-179.

Moss, V. A. (1991). Battered Women and the Myth of Masochism. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 29(7), 18-23.

National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control. (2003). Cost of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. Atlanta: National Centre of Injury Prevention and Control.

National Council to Reduce Violence against Women and Children (2009). The Cost of Violence against women and their children. Commonwealth of Australia.

National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. (2019a). Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (Vol. 1a). https://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Final_Report_Vol_1a-1.pdf.

National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. (2019b). Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (Vol. 1b). https://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Final_Report_Vol_1b.pdf.

National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. (2019c). Our Women and Girls are Sacred. Interim Report. http://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/4165316/MMIWG-inquiry-interim-report.pdf.

Neilson, L. C. (2004). Assessing Mutual Partner-Abuse Claims in Child Custody and Access Cases. Family Court Review, 42(3) 411- 438.

Neilson, L. C. (2013). Enhancing Safety: When Domestic Violence Cases are in Multiple Legal Systems (Criminal, Family, Child Protection) A Family Law, Domestic Violence Perspective. 2013 Edition, Department of Justice Canada. https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/fl-lf/famil/enhan-renfo/toc-tdm.html#toc.

Nicholson, K. (9 de marzo de 2020). Barriers in Canada’s Legal System Complicating Fight to end Domestic Violence. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/barriers-in-canada-s-legal-system-complicating-fight-to-end-domestic-violence-1.5488510.

Ogle, R. y Jacobs, S. (2002). Self-Defense and Battered Women Who Kill: A New Framework. Westport: Praeger.

Okun, L. (1986). Woman Abuse: Facts Replacing Myths. Nueva York: State University of New York Press.

Ontario Domestic Violence Death Review Committee. (2016). Annual Report 2016. https://www.mcscs.jus.gov.on.ca/english/Deathinvestigations/OfficeChiefCoroner/Publicationsandreports/2016DomesticViolenceDeathReviewCommitteeAnnualReport.html.

Osthoff, S. (2001). When Victims Become Defendants: Battered Women Charges With Crimes. En Renzetti, C. y Goodstein, L. (Eds.), Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

Osthoff, S. (2002). But Gertrude, I beg to differ, a hit is not a hit: When battered women are arrested for assaulting their partners. Violence Against Women, 8(12), 1521-1544.

Ozdemir, N. O. (2014). The Role of English as a Lingua Franca in Academia: The Case of Turkish Postgraduate Students in an Anglophone-Centre Context. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, (141), 74-78.

Palmary, I. (1999). Psychology’s Construction of a Gendered Subjectivity through Support Groups for Domestic Violence (Tesis de maestría). University of Natal. http://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10413/5886/Palmary_Ingrid_1999.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

Parker, I., Georgaca, E., Harper, D., McLaughlin, T. y Stowell-Smith, M. (1995). Deconstructing Psychopathology. Londres: SAGE Publications.

Pence, E. y T. Taylor. (2005). Building Safety for Battered Women and their Children into the Child Protection System. A Summary of Three Consultations (Greenbook Information). http://www.thegreenbook.info/documents/buildingsafety.pdf#_blank.

Philips, S. (1986). Reported Speech as Evidence in an American Trial. En Tannen, D. y Alatis, J. (Eds.), Languages and Linguistics: The Interdependence of Theory, Data and Application (pp.154-170). Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press.

Phillips, D. (1998). Culture and Systems of Oppression in Abused Women’s Lives. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 27(6), 678-683.

Potter, H. (2008). Battle Cries: Black Women and Intimate Partner Abuse. Nueva York: New York University Press.

Ptacek, J. (1999). Battered women in the courtroom: The power of judicial responses. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Quintana Osuna, K. I. (2008). Recognition of Women’s Rights before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 21(2), 301-312.

Randall, M. (2010). Sexual Assault Law, Credibility, and ‘Ideal Victims’: Consent, Resistance and Victim Blaming. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 22(2), 397-434.

Ratushny, L. (1997). Self Defence Review: Final report. Ministry of Justice Canada.

Reina, A. Lohman, B. y Maldonado, M. (2014). “He Said They’d Deport Me”: Factors Influencing Domestic Violence Help-Seeking Practices Among Latina Immigrants. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(4), 593-615.

Richie, B. (1996). Compelled to Crime: the Gender Entrapment of Battered Black Women. Nueva York: Routledge.

Richie, B. (2012). Arrested Justice: Black Women, Violence, and America’s Prison Nation. Nueva York: New York University Press.

Roa Avella, M. (2012). Mujer maltratada y exclusión de responsabilidad. Una mirada de género a la legítima defensa y al Estado de necesidad exculpante. Nova et Vetera, 21(65), 49-70.

Robinson, F. (1997). Globalizing Care: Ethics, Feminist Theory, and International Relations. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 22(1), 113-133.

Rose, N. (1985). The psychological complex: Psychology, Politics and Society in England 1869- 1939. Londres: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Rhodes, N. y Baranoff McKenzie, E. (1998). Why Do Battered Women Stay?: Three Decades of Research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3(4), 391- 406.

Rhodes, K., Cerulli, C., Dichter, M., Kotharu, C. y Barg, F. (2010). “I Didn’t Want to Put Them Through That”: The Influence of Children on Victim Decision-Making in Intimate Partner Violence Cases. Journal of Family Violence, 25(5), 485-493.

Romero, M. (1985). A Comparison between Strategies Used On Prisoners Of War and Battered Women. Sex Roles, (13), 537-547.

Rothenberg, B. (2002). Movement Advocates as Battered Women’s Story-Tellers: from Varied Experiences, One Message. En Davis, J. (Ed.), Stories of Change: Narrative and Transformative Movements. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Rothenberg, B. (2003). ‘We don’t have time for social change’: Cultural compromise and the Battered Woman Syndrome. Gender and Society, 77(5), 771-787.

Roxin, C. (1997). Derecho Penal. Parte General. Tomo I. Fundamentos. La Estructura de la Teoría del Delito. Madrid: Editorial Civitas.

Rubio-Marin, R. y Sandoval, C. (2011). Engendering the Reparations Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: The Promise of the Cotton Field Judgment. Human Rights Quarterly, 33(4), 1062-1091.

Russell, B. L. (2010). Battered Woman Syndrome as a Legal Defense: History, Effectiveness and Implications. Jefferson: McFarland & Co. Publishers.

Russell, B. L. y Melillo, L. S. (2006). Attitudes toward Battered Women Who Kill: Defendant Typicality and Judgments of Culpability. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(2), 219-241.

Schechter, E. (1982). Women and Male Violence: The Visions and Struggles of the Battered Women’s Movement. Cambridge: South End Press.

Schneider, E. (1980). Equal Rights to Trial for Women: Sex-Bias in the Law of Self-Defense. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, (15), 623-647.

Schneider, E. (1994). The Violence of Privacy. En Albertson Fineman, M. y Mykitiuk, R. (Eds.), The Public Nature of Private Violence. Nueva York: Routledge.

Schneider, E. (1996a). Describing and Changing: Women’s Self-Defense Work and the Problem of Expert Testimony on Battering. En Weisburg, D. K. (Ed.), Application of Feminist Legal Theory. Filadelfia: Temple University Press.

Schneider, E. (1996b). Resistance to Equality. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, (57), 477-524. Schneider, E. (2000). Battered Women & Feminist Lawmaking. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Schneider, E. (2010). La violencia de lo privado. En Di Corleto, J. (Comp.), Justicia, género y violencia. Buenos Aires: Libraria Ediciones.

Schuller, R. A. y Hastings, P. (1996). Trials of Battered Women Who Kill: The Impact of Alternative Forms of Expert Evidence. Law and Human Behavior, 20(2), 167-188.

Schuller, R. A. y Vidmar, N. (1992). Battered Woman Syndrome Evidence in the Courtroom: A Review of the Literature. Law and Human Behavior, 16(3), 273-291.

Schuller, R. A., Wells, E., Rzepa, S. y Klippenstine, M. A. (2004). Rethinking Battered Woman Syndrome Evidence: The Impact of Alternative Forms of Expert Testimony on Mock Jurors’ Decisions. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 36(2), 127-136.

Seligman, M. E. P. (1972). Learned helplessness. Annual Review of Medicine, 23(1), 407-412.

Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Shaffer, M. (1997). The Battered Woman Syndrome Revisited: Some Complicating Thoughts Five Years after R v. Lavallee. The University of Toronto Law Journal, 47(1), 1-33.

Sheehy, E. (1994). Developments in Canadian Law after R. V. Lavallee (1994). En Stubbs, J. (Ed). Women, Male Violence and the Law (pp. 174-191). Sídney: Institute of Criminology.

Sheehy, E. (1999). Legal Responses to Violence against Women in Canada. Canadian Woman Studies, 19(1-2), 62-73.

Sheehy, E. (2000). Review of the Self-Defence Review. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 12(1), 197-234.

Sheehy, E. (2001). Battered Women and Mandatory Minimum Sentences. Osgoode Hall Law Journal, (39), 529-554.

Sheehy E. (2013). Defending Battered Women on Trial: Lessons from the Transcripts. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Sheehy, E. (2014). Defending Battered Women on Trial: Lessons from the Transcripts. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Sheehy, E. (2018). Expert Evidence on Coercive Control in Support Of Self-Defence: The Trial of Teresa Craig. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 18(1), 100-114.

Sheehy, E., Stubbs, J. y Tolmie, J. (1992). Defending Battered Women on Trial: The Battered Woman Syndrome and its Limitations. Criminal Law Journal, (6), 369-394.

Sheehy, E., Stubbs, J. y Tolmie, J. (2012). Defences to Homicide for Battered Women: A Comparative Analysis of Laws in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Sydney Law Review, 34(3), 467-492.

Sheppard, C. (2000). Women as Wives: Immigration Law and Domestic Violence. 26 Queen’s Law Journal, 1.

Sheppard, C. (2008). Feminist Pragmatism in the Work of Justice Bertha Wilson. The Supreme Court Law Review, Osgoode’s Annual Constitutional Cases Conference, (41). http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/sclr/vol41/iss1/6.

Siegel, R. (1999). Regulando la Violencia Marital. En Gargarella, R. (Comp.), Derechos y Grupos desaventajados (pp. 83-84). Barcelona: Yale Law School/Universidad de Palermo/GEDISA Editorial.

Šimonović, D. (2018). End of Mission Statement by Dubravka Šimonović, United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences. Official Visit to Canada.

Simpson, S. (1989). Feminist Theory, Crime, and Justice. Criminology, 27(4), 605-631.

Slinkard, S. E. (2019). She Chose to et Rid Of Him by Murder, not by Leaving Him’: Discursive Constructions of a Battered Woman who Killed in R v. Craig (Disertación en Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, York University). Toronto, Ontario, Canadá.

Smart, C. (1976). Women, Crime and Criminology: A Feminist Critique. Londres: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Sokoloff, N. (2008). The Intersectional Paradigm and Alternative Visions Stopping Domestic Violence: What Poor Women, Women of Color, and Immigrant Women are Teaching Us about Violence in the Family. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 34(2), 153-185.

Sokoloff, N. y Dupont, I. (2005). Domestic Violence at the Intersections of Race, Class, and Gender: Challenges and Contributions to Understanding Violence against Marginalized Women in Diverse Communities. Violence against Women, 11(1), 38-64.

Soskis, D. A. y Ochberg, F. M. (1982). Concepts of Terrorist Victimization. En Ochberg, F. M. y Soskis, D. A. (Eds.), Victims of terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press.

Souto, R., Guruge, S. Barbosa Merighi, M. y Pinto De Jesus, M. (2016). Immigrant Partner Violence among Older Portuguese Immigrant Women in Canada. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516646101.

Spatz, Melissa. (1991). A Lesser Crime: A Comparative Study of Legal Defenses for Men Who Kill Their Wives. Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems, (24), 597-638.

Stark, E. (1995). Re-Presenting Woman Battering: From Battered Woman Syndrome to Coercive Control. Albany Law Review, (58), 973-1026.

Stark, E. (2007). Coercive Control: How Men Entrap Women in Personal Life. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stark E. (2012). Looking Beyond Domestic Violence: Policing Coercive Control. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, (12), 199-217.

Stark, E. (2013). Coercive Control. En Lombard, N. y McMillan, L. (Eds.), Violence Against Women: Current Theory and Practice in Domestic Abuse, Sexual Violence, and Exploitation. Londres: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Statistics Canada. (2006). Measuring Violence against Women. 85-570-XIE, 35-45.

Steele, W.W., Jr. y Siman, C. W. (1991). Re-examining the Doctrine of Self-Defense to Accommodate Battered Women. American Journal of Criminal Law, (18), 169-185.

Stratenwerth, G. (2005). Derecho Penal. Parte General I. El Hecho Punible (4ª ed.). Buenos Aires: Hammurabi.

Strentz, T. (1980). The Stockholm Syndrome: Law Enforcement Policy and Ego Defenses of the Hostage. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 347(1), 137-150.

Stubbs, J. y Tolmie, J. (1995). Race, Gender, and the Battered Woman Syndrome: An Australia Case Study. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 122(8), 122-158.

Stubbs, J. y Tolmie, J. (2008). Battered Women Charged With Homicide: Advancing the Interests of Indigenous Women. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 41(1), 138-161.

Sutherland T. J. (2004). High-Conflict Divorce or Stalking by Way Of Family Court? The Empowerment of A Wealthy Abuser in Family Court Litigation. Linda v. Lyle – A case study. Massachusetts Family Law Journal, 22(1-2), 4-16.

Symonds, A. (1979).Violence against Women-The Myth of Masochism. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 33(2), 161, 1979.

Symonds, M. (1982). Victim Responses to Terror: Understanding and Treatment. En Ochberg, F. M. y Soskis, D. A. (Eds.), Victims of terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press.

Taubman, S. (1986). Beyond the Bravado. Social Work, 31(1), 12-18.

Taylor, L. R. y N. Gaskin-Laniyan. (2007). Sexual Assault in Abusive Relationships. National Institute of Justice Journal Issue 256. Washington, D. C.: US Department of Justice.

Terrance, C. A. y Matheson, K. (2003). Undermining Reasonableness: Expert Testimony in a Case Involving a Battered Woman who Kills. Psychology of Women Quarterly, (27), 37-45.

Ursel, J. (2006). Over Policed and Under Protected: A Question of Justice for Aboriginal Women. En Ruclos Hampton, M. y Gerrard, N. (Eds.), Intimate Partner Violence: Reflections on Experience, Theory and Policy. Toronto: Cormorant Books.

Ursel, J., Tutty, L. y Lemaistre, J. (Eds.). (2008). What’s Law Got To Do with It? The Law, Specialized Courts and Domestic Violence in Canada. Toronto: Cormorant Books.

Van der Kolk, B. A. (2014). The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. Nueva York: Viking.

Varcoe, C., Hankivsky, O., Ford-Gilboe, M., Wuest, J., Wilk, P., Hammerton, J. y Campbell, J. (2011). Attributing Selected Costs to Intimate Partner Violence in a Sample of Women Who Have Left Abusive Partners: A Social Determinants of Health Approach. Canadian Public Policy, 37(3), 359-380.

Velonis, A., Daoud, N., Matheson, F., Woodhall-Melnik, J., Hamilton-Wright, S. y O’Campo, P. (2015). Strategizing Safety: Theoretical Frameworks to Understand Women’s Decision Making in the Face of Partner Violence and Social Inequalities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(21), 3321-3345.

Venesy, B. A. (1991). State v. Stewart: Self-Defense and Battered Women: Reasonable Perception of Danger or License to Kill. Akron Law Review, 23(1), 89-104.

Vidales, G. (2010). Arrested Justice: The Multifacted Plight of Immigrant Latinas Who Faced Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 25(6), 533-544.

Walker, L. E. (1979). Battered Woman. Nueva York: Harper & Row.

Walker, L. E. (1984). The Battered Woman Syndrome. Nueva York: Springer Publishing Company.

Walker, L. E. (1990). Terrifying Love: Why Battered Women Kill and How Society Responds. Nueva York: Harper/Collins.

Walker, L. E. (1992a). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Women: Diagnosis and Treatment of Battered Woman Syndrome. Psychotherapy, 28(1), 21-29.

Walker, L. E. (1992b). Battered Women Syndrome and Self Defense. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy, 6(2), 321-334.

Walker, L. E. (2000). The Battered Woman Syndrome (2a ed.). Nueva York: Springer Publishing Company.

Walker, L. E. (2009). The Battered Woman Syndrome (3a ed.). Nueva York: Springer Publishing Company.

Wallace, R. M. (1994). Men, Their Rights and Nothing More; Women, Their Rights and Nothing Less. Saskatchewan Law Review, 58.

Wangmann, J. (2011). Different Types of Intimate Partner Violence - An Exploration of the Literature. Australian Domestic & Family Violence Clearinghouse. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2361189.

West, C. y Zimmerman, D. (1987). Doing Gender. Gender and Society, 1(2), 125-151.

White-Mair, K. (2000). Experts and Ordinary Men: Locating R. v. Lavallee, Battered Woman Syndrome, and the “New” Psychiatric Expertise on Women within Canadian Legal History. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, (12), 406-438.

Williams, J. C. (1991). Dissolving the Sameness/Difference Debate: A Post-Modern Path Beyond Essentialism in Feminist And Critical Race Theory. Duke Law Journal, (2), 296-323.

Williams, W. W. (1984-1985). Equality’s Riddle: Pregnancy and the Equal Treatment/Special Treatment Debate. New York University Review of Law & Social Change, (13), 370-74.

Wilson, B. (1992). “Family Violence” (An Address to the National Convention of B’nai Brith Women of Canada, May 26, 1991). Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, (5), 137.

Wilson, M. y Daly, M. (1993). Spousal Homicide Risk and Estrangement. Violence and Victims, 8(1), 3-16.

Wong, P. (2005). Excerpts from the article on Elizabeth Smart and Stockholm Syndrome. Interpersonal Meaning Network.

Wright, T. (10 de mayo de 2020). Violence against Indigenous women during COVID-19 sparks calls for MMIWG plan. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-violence-against-indigenous-women-during-covid-19-sparks-calls-for-2/.

Yang, L. H., Kleinman, A., Link, B. G., Phelan, J. C., Lee, S. y Good, B. (2007). Culture and Stigma: Adding Moral Experience to Stigma Theory. Social Science & Medicine, 64(7), 1524-1535.

Zaffaroni, C. F. (2000). El discurso feminista y el poder punitivo. En Birgin, H. (Comp.), Las trampas del poder punitivo. Buenos Aires: Biblos.

Zaffaroni, E., Alagia, A. y Slokar, A. (2000). Derecho Penal Parte General. Buenos Aires: Editorial Ediar.

Zaffaroni, E. R. (2002). Derecho Penal. Parte General (2a ed.). Buenos Aires: Ediar.

Zhang, T., Hoddenbagh, J., McDonald, S. y Scrim, K. (2012). An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009. Ottawa: Department of Justice.

Publicado
2020-12-12
Cómo citar
Handl, M. N. (2020). Mujeres abusadas que matan: Una mirada de género a la legítima defensa y al "síndrome de la mujer golpeada" en el derecho canadiense desde el caso "R v. Lavallee". Revista Jurídica Austral, 1(2), 671-769. Recuperado a partir de https://ojs.austral.edu.ar/index.php/juridicaaustral/article/view/407
Sección
Derecho público