Patentes: flexibilidades del ADPIC como respuesta a la pandemia del COVID-19. Lecciones aprendidas y perspectivas de una política futura

Palabras clave: innovación, patentes de invención, derecho a la salud, acceso a medicamentos esenciales, ADPIC, licencias obligatorias, emergencia sanitaria, COVID-19

Resumen

La emergencia sanitaria causada por la pandemia del COVID-19 ha dado lugar a un intenso debate sobre el rol de los derechos de propiedad industrial (PI) entre quienes sostienen que estos derechos pueden obstaculizar el desarrollo, la fabricación y la distribución de productos esenciales para contrarrestar los efectos de la pandemia y quienes, en sentido opuesto, argumentan que la protección de los derechos de PI es fundamental para el incentivo de la innovación y la transferencia de tecnología. En este contexto, el presente artículo, evidenciando ejemplos concretos referidos a la actual pandemia y otros ejemplos del pasado, tiene como objetivo analizar la manifestada colisión entre los derechos exclusivos de quienes son titulares de las patentes y el interés general de la sociedad en la disponibilidad y efectivo acceso en forma igualitaria a medicamentos esenciales en relación con las distintas medidas disponibles a nivel legislativo e internacional, y con las distintas iniciativas, como la propuesta de renuncia transitoria de los derechos de PI presentada a la Organización Mundial del Comercio por algunos países, actualmente en el debate internacional. Se concluye que la búsqueda del equilibrio debe pasar por la cooperación internacional, que establezca un delicado balance para satisfacer el interés por el acceso a tecnologías esenciales para contrarrestar la pandemia, salvaguardando los incentivos a la innovación y, a la vez, contribuyendo a delinear un cuadro reglamentario para hacerles frente a posibles crisis sanitarias futuras. El artículo está organizado del siguiente modo: la primera parte contextualiza el actual debate; la segunda analiza, desde una perspectiva histórica, la colisión entre derechos de PI y salud pública, evidenciando las flexibilidades proporcionadas por el ADPIC, como así también casos concretos de aplicación de licencias obligatorias. La tercera parte, partiendo de casos ocurridos durante la pandemia y que han dado lugar a debate público, estudia las flexibilidades del ADPIC, en particular las licencias obligatorias como medida de respuesta al COVID-19, describiendo las principales medidas adoptadas por algunos Estados, como así también iniciativas de tipo voluntario. La cuarta parte indaga las distintas posiciones en relación con el debate actual sobre las dos propuestas de suspensión generalizada de los derechos de PI en tiempos de pandemia. Por último, se delinean las conclusiones.

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Publicado
2021-06-30
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Contardi, M., & Vidal, E. (2021). Patentes: flexibilidades del ADPIC como respuesta a la pandemia del COVID-19. Lecciones aprendidas y perspectivas de una política futura. Revista Iberoamericana De La Propiedad Intelectual, (14), 71-104. Recuperado a partir de https://ojs.austral.edu.ar/index.php/ripi/article/view/553
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